Ways of Acquiring Resistance

Bacteria adopt all possible ways to survive when exposed to drugs. Depending upon type of bacteria (gram positive/ gram negative) the approaches vary. The most common of these in general include:

  • Not permitting drug to enter
    • Either by closing porin channels
    • My making alteration in outer membrane proteins to reduce permemability
    • By secreting extracellular enzymes to deactivate the drug
  • By secreting intracellular enzymes for deactivation of drug
    • Extended spectrum beta lactamases secretion
    • Aminoglycoside modifying enzyme secretion
  • Efflux the drug out of bacterial cell
  • By making biofilms formation (when single bacteria or a small population is under threat they colonize and form protective layer around them, called biofilm)
  • By altering the binding sites of drug
  • By transferring resistant genetic material to neighboring non-resistant microbes

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